IMER Bergen, International Migration and Ethnic Relations


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Below you will find the IMER newsletter for December 2015 and January 2016.  If you want to publish something in the next IMER newsletter send and e-mail to Remember to follow us at and on our Facebook pages. Apologies for crossposting




EMERGING URBANITIES LUNCH SEMINARS: Bjørn Egen Bertelsen -Predatory securities: reshaping the city and state of Mosambique


December 15, 2015 @ 12:00 pm – 1:30 pm


UNI Rokkan senteret (6 etg)

Nygårdsgaten 5

5015 Bergen, Norway

Notions and practices of security colonise both state and urban contexts across Africa. Arguably, these notions and practices are also integral to wider global political formations where urban formations in Africa are often cast as pre-figuring the shape of future global cities more generally. Based on fieldworks in the Mozambican cities of Maputo and Chimoio, this paper sees security there as related to violent crime and capital accumulation in ways that undermine policy-oriented representations of security provision as solely undertaken by state police supplemented by neoliberal assemblages of security companies.

Rather, and more specifically, the paper shows how security is not only subjected to a spatialized logic of race and social control but also renders violence – in all its forms – central to its exercise and cosmologies. This point will be emphasised by analysing how various forms of policing must be understood beyond the security-development nexus. These forms of policing increasingly involve a gradual emergence of what I call ‘predatory security’ that is central to violent modes of capital accumulation that shape African urban landscapes as well as define the contours of the state. The paper suggests that as a configuration of accumulative violence such predatory security has consequences for how we should approach calls for rights to the city as well as the state in urban African orders and beyond.

Bjørn Enge Bertelsen, associate professor, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Bergen, has researched issues such as state formation, violence, poverty and rural-urban connections in Mozambique since 1998. 



The 18th Nordic Migration Research (NMR) Conference will be held on August 11-12, 2016 at the University of Oslo, Norway.

The Call for Paper proposals will be opened on January 15, 2016. Deadline for submitting paper abstracts will be on March 15, 2016.


Call for papers

J-RaT Ausgabe 4:

Religion and Migration


The fourth issue of the Interdisciplinary Journal for Religion and

Transformation in Contemporary Society (J-RaT) focuses particularly on

the topic of Religion and Migration and its dynamics within the European

and global context.


According to the societal and global-political topicality, the issue aims at identifying and analyzing current and future challenges and questions for academic research and education, politics and society, churches and religious institutions, and communities. Based on the latest research results and political dynamics the contributions should provide an interdisciplinary insight into the topic and should initialize future perspectives for academic research and social practice. We encourage the submission of articles which approach the topic from social, cultural, political, educational and religious sciences as well as from a religious-theological point of view. The relationship between religion and migration will become a decisive issue in the next decades, and will assume an increasingly important role in the processes of social, religious and political transformation. In order to approach this subject in all of its aspects it is necessary to develop a basic scientific research.


Therefore the papers should deal with the following questions:


Which contemporary and prospective (social, political, economical, cultural, religious) challenges can be identified in the context of migration, flight and asylum?


Which meaning and which tasks do religion and religiosity, churches and religious institutions/communities have in this context? Which role do they play? Which role can/should they play?

How do these challenges look like from the perspective of religious institutions/communities and churches?

Based on latest research results of the issue: What are the future research questions in the context of religion and migration? What could be the contribution of the particular academic discipline in relation to the current challenges?


These questions are kept deliberately broad to facilitate the diversity of current challenges on all levels of society as well as on a local and global level.


In a addition to this main area, J-RaT accepts also free contributions provided that they focus in principle on the subject matter of the journal. This is particularly the growing complexity of the global context, the paradigmatic changes in the construction of social meanings, the juridical challenges and their connection with religious transformations.




Please send your contribution to by 10th



After a first feedback you will be kindly asked to upload your contribution to by 19th February 2016.


The articles should have usually 8.000 - 15.000 words and will be subject to a double-blind peer review by two anonymous reviewers. Volume 4 of J-RaT will be published in September 2016.




Please consider the following guidelines:


  • The paper must be an initial publication which has not been published in any other medium.
  • It must focus on the aim of J-RaT.
  • Papers can be submitted in English, German, Spanish or Italian.
  • Please send your paper as MS Word (.DOC) oder Rich Text Format (.RTF);
  • Tables, charts and graphs have to be submitted separately as TIFF,
  • JPG or PDF.
  • The authors have to observe the editorial guidelines of the publishing company V&R unipress.


The authors should include a cover letter with their manuscript, which states explicitly that the manuscript has not been previously published in any language anywhere and that it is not under simultaneous consideration or in press by another journal. The letter should contain the full name (submitted by), the full title of the article and a short title, the full list of authors with affiliations, e-mail, contact address, telephone/fax numbers of the corresponding author, number of attached files, if there is more than one.


Call for Papers

XIII Annual Conference of the Italian Society for Middle Eastern Studies (SeSaMO)

University of Catania, Italy

17-19 March 2016

Migrants: Communities, Borders, Memories, Conflicts

Panel: Migration in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

In the last few years, the topic of migration to the GCC countries has attracted growing scholarly interest. Outside of academic circles, the establishment of prestigious academic and cultural institutions imported from Europe and North America such as the Guggenheim, NYU, and the Sorbonne has gained the attention of human and labour rights advocacy organizations concerned about the plight of migrant workers in the Gulf. Human Rights Watch, among other organizations, has been highly critical of the injury and death rates for construction workers building stadiums for the 2022 World Cup in Qatar. At the same time, due to the region’s economic success, some policy makers and scholars in the West have publically debated the virtues and pitfalls of adopting aspects of the region’s migrant labour policies.


Because of historical, political, and socio-economic reasons, migration to the GCC countries is not comparable to migration in the West. Migration to the GCC area is strictly regulated and controlled by the kafāla system, a state administered labour sponsorship regime. These differences have led scholars from a variety of disciplines to reassess longstanding assumptions and theories on international migration.


The overriding aim of the panel is to illuminate the patterns, complexities and ambiguities of international migration in the GCC. In light of this aim, the panel welcomes contributions from a wide range of methodological and disciplinary approaches to the subject of migrant labour and migration in the GCC.


We encourage submission of papers that fit within one of the following areas:

  • Theoretical and methodological aspects of research on migration in the GCC (ethical issues, methods, theories, etc.).
  • Political and legal aspects of migration in the GCC (kafāla, integration, naturalization, etc.
  • Impacts and social aspects of migration in the GCC (class, gender, ethnicity, race, religion, paternity/maternity in migration context).


Comparative and historical analyses of migration and the political/social implications for the wider adoption of the GCC labour model.

The abstract should be between 150-200 words and include the name, institutional affiliation and title. Our ultimate objective is to submit the panel’s papers for publication in a special issue of a relevant area studies or social science journal.


Please submit your abstract online by 1 January 2016 to (or alternatively to or


Call for papers


International conference




Padua (Italy), April 14-15, 2016


The relationship between religion and human rights is controversial and debated. The aim of the international conference is to take stock of the complex connections between religion and human rights, emphasizing that both the definition and the application of these two concepts are influenced by the different social and cultural contexts within which they are placed.

Starting from the geopolitical changes which have involved contemporary society on a global scale, the conference intends to critically evaluate the two main narratives on this topic: on the one hand religions understood as an element opposing the affirmation of human rights, and on the other religions considered as agencies facilitating the implementation of human rights. Religious rights, understood as individual and/or collective rights, are disputed as well.

How do religious traditions and new religious communities approach human rights issues? How do states manage religious traditions and religious diversification? How are human rights discourses and practices affected by the social context?


Participants are invited to explore from different disciplinary perspectives the following topics:

Freedom of expression, speech, choice, association; non-discrimination; gender issues; religion-state relations; violence; conflict; peace.


Confirmed keynote speakers:

  • Eileen Barker, London School of Economics
  • Lori Beaman, University of Ottawa
  • Willy Fautré, Human Rights Without Frontiers International
  • Silvio Ferrari, University of Milan
  • Enzo Pace, University of Padua
  • James Richardson, University of Nevada
  •  Hans-Georg Ziebertz, University of Wuerzburg


The international conference is organized by the Joint PhD Programme on “Human Rights, Society, and Multi-level Governance” (Universities of Athens-Panteion, Padua, Western Sydney, Zagreb).


Scientific Committee:

Giuseppe Giordan, University of Padua

Adam Possamai, Western Sidney University

Constantin Preda, University of Bucharest

Siniša Zrinščak, University of Zagreb


Abstracts (300 words) should be sent to Giuseppe Giordan ( no later than January 15th, 2016.

Acceptance notification will be sent by January 25th, 2016.

There are no fees for attendance.



Call for papers

European Association for the Study of Religions (EASR) 2016 Conference ‘Relocating Religion’

28 June – 1 July 2016, Helsinki





The session will use the concept of diaspora – broadly defined both in relation to the transnational and in-country movement of groups of people – in order to explore the practice and experience of Christianity in different socio-cultural settings as communities of people relocate to areas outside their ‘homelands’. The session invites ethnographic papers discussing, but not exclusively, questions such as: What role does Christianity and its institutions play in community-building, community empowerment and community welfare in diaspora settings? How are churches constituted and organised in diaspora? How do churches mediate relations and negotiate cultural differences with (non-Christian) host populations? To what extent are Christian churches involved in facilitating integration with/separation from host societies? What relations do diasporic Christians maintain with their ‘homelands’? How does Christianity shape diasporic identities? How is Christian practice/theology (re)shaped by the diasporic experience? By exploring diasporic forms of Christianity across the world, the session will open up understanding of the diversity of Christian identities, practices, theologies and ways of engaging with and explaining the world among diasporic communities, and the theoretical potentiality inherent in this.

In order to submit an abstract for this open session, please follow the link and the submission instructions.

Submission deadline: 31 December


Session conveners:

Iliyana Angelova (University of Oxford)

Ksenia Medvedeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)



Best regards,

Ksenia Medvedeva

Faculty of Sociology, Higher School of Economics (Moscow)


C уважением, Ксения Медведева

аспирантка департамента социологии НИУ ВШЭ (Москва)

моб. 8 968 542 08 42




Call for papers

The Chair of Arabic Studies at Yerevan State University in cooperation with Middle Orient project is pleased to invite graduate students (MA and PhD) and recent post-docs of all fields associated with Arabic and Islamic Studies (broadly defined) to present their recent research during the graduate conference entitled “Crossing the borders - Interdisciplinary research in Arabic and Islamic studies”, which will take place in the first week of May 2016 (the exact date of the conference will be specified later).


Research papers are accepted on all aspects of Arabic and Islamic

studies, including, but not limited to:

Islamic Studies (History, religion, politics)

Arabic Literature

Arabic Linguistics

The History of Arabic countries

The Arab world in the framework of international relations

Intercultural dialogue

The topical issues of Arab Middle East


Each participant will be expected to speak for no longer than 20

minutes. At the end of each session the discussion will be opened by

the session moderator.


Submission process


For submitting a paper proposal, please send an abstract of proposed

paper (no more than 300 words) and a current CV to by 15th of February, 2016. Abstracts

should provide a brief description of the work, clearly outlining the

theoretical perspectives and methodology to be applied in the paper.


Notifications of acceptance will be sent until 29th of February, 2016.


All proposals will be subjected to peer-reviews. The selected papers

will be published in the proceeding volume of "Arabic Studies"- the

annually published official journal of the Chair of Arabic Studies,



Please find the call for papers attached.


For any enquiries regarding the conference, please contact



Sincerely yours,

Marieta Bazinyan

Department of Arabic Studies,

Yerevan State University,

Phone: (+ 374)91-78-06-33

Yerevan, Armenia


Call for Abstracts


6th European Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health, EUPHA MEMH 2016

Oslo, 23-25 June 2016

Deadline for submission: December 20th, 2015

More information and abstract submission:


The Scientific Committee welcomes the submission of abstracts for presentation at the 6th European Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health, EUPHA MEMH Oslo 2016.


EUPHA MEMH Oslo 2016 will provide a unique opportunity for all the stakeholders in the health care sector to meet, share, discuss and debate the issues related to equity in health.


The theme of EUPHA MEMH 2016 will be Equity – the Policy Practice Gap. 

Participants are invited to submit abstracts in the following categories for oral and poster presentations

  • Policy and Practice
  • Research
  • Training and Education

Participants may also submit abstracts for Workshops (separate guidelines to follow).


Abstracts submitted can cover any of the following Groups or Topics:


  • Migrants
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Asylum seekers
  • Refugees
  • Undocumented migrants


Socio-Demographic determinants

Political determinants for health and the policy environment; (including entitlements, economic factors and ethical challenges) 

  • Access and quality of health care services; disparities and inequities
  • Social exclusion and marginalization
  • Health system responsiveness to diversity; Good practices
  • User involvement and participation; Empowerment and levers for change
  • Professional Training and Education
  • Policies and practices affecting the living and working conditions that impact health; work safety


Authors please note

  • Abstracts must be written and presented in English only.
  • Authors will be expected to attend the conference and make their presentations (oral or poster) themselves.
  • An author can only be the presenting author of one category of abstract. Being a co-author will not be taken into account.
  • Abstracts without results or lessons learnt will not be considered for review and will therefore not be accepted.


Review process

Abstracts will be selected following a scientific review by the Scientific Committee. Acceptance of abstracts will be notified to the First Author and the decision of the Scientific Committee will be final. Those whose abstracts are accepted will be informed by the 1st March 2016.


Important Dates
Online submission opens: 1st October 2015
Deadline for submission: 20th December 2015
Notification of acceptance: 15th March 2016 



For any general enquiries or enquiries regarding the program, please contact:

We look forward to seeing you at EUPHA MEMH 2016.


More information and abstract submission:


Allan Krasnik                                                             Jeanette H. Magnus

President, Scientific Committee                               Deputy President, Scientific Committee

EUPHA MEMH 2016                                                  EUPHA MEMH 2016






Nordic Journal of Migration Research (NJMR) has 5 books to be reviewed for upcoming journal issues.


Research (NJMR) is a scholarly and professional electronic, open access journal, published by Nordic Migration Research (NMR) and the Society for the Study of Ethnic Relations and International Migration (ETMU).


NJMR aims to promote and advance the circulation of the multidisciplinary study of ethnic relations and international migration that is conducted in the Nordic countries. The language of the journal is English.


We are looking for people to review the books listed below.

If you are interested, please send an e-mail to Louise Lund Liebmann: in which you highlight with a few words your research background and suitability to do the review. Please remember to ADD YOUR POSTAL ADDRESS.


Unfortunately we are unable to pay our book reviewers, but you will get to keep the book.


The books to be reviewed are:


'Migration in the Age of Genocide: Law, Forgiveness and Revenge' (2015) by Alastair Davidson. Springer.


This book presents a novel proposal for establishing justice and social harmony in the aftermath of genocide. It argues that justice should be determined by the victims of genocide rather than a detached legal system, since such a form of justice is more consistent with a socially grounded ethics, with a democracy that privileges citizen decision-making, and with human rights.


'Migration and Care Labour: Theory, Policy and Politics' (2014) by eds. Bridget Anderson & Isabel Shutes. Series: Migration, Diaspora and Citizenship. Palgrave.


Across the world, the provision of care faces mounting challenges – what has been widely referred to as a 'crisis of care'. In the global North, international migrants have increasingly supplemented the unpaid or low-paid care labour of women – as domestic workers, nannies, care assistants and nurses – in the private sphere of the home and in publicly and privately funded care services. This volume brings together international scholars on migration and care to examine the global construction of migrant care labour.


'Child and Youth Migration: Mobility-in-Migration in an Era of Globalization' (2014) by eds. Angela Veale & Giorgia Doná. Palgrave.


Migration across multiple borders is a defining feature of the time in which we live, and children are central to this contemporary migration phenomenon. A core aim of this volume is to contribute at an empirical level to knowledge about the intersection between children, migration, and mobilities by highlighting underresearched child and youth short-term and micro movements within major migration fluxes that occur in response to migration and global change. This collection positions this complex mobility-in-migration within individual, intergenerational, and collective migratory lifespan trajectories.


'Migration and Remittances'. (2015) by eds. John Connell & Richard P.C. Brown.Edward Elgar Publishing.

 In this title, the editors draw together key articles by leading scholars which investigate the significance and role of remittances in economic and social development. They examine topics including reflections on methodology, the motives and determinants of remittances, their socio-economic impacts (especially at the household level), the role of community organisations and social remittances, and the broad social and cultural impacts of remittances.


'Cultural Essentialism in Intercultural Relations' (2015) by Fred Dervin & Regis Machart. Palgrave Macmillan.

The concept of culture has never been as problematic as it is today. Over the last three decades, critiques of the concept have been widespread around the world, especially in anthropology and sociology. Yet in the field of intercultural communication and relations, culture is still omnipresent and is often used to justify certain views on the 'other' and also to discriminate, which can lead to understandings and visions of interculturality that are limiting and essentialist.


With kind regards,


Louise Lund Liebmann

Book review editor  (NJMR)

MA and PhD, religious studies,

Postdoc (CoMRel),

Department of Religion, Philosophy and History,

University of Agder



Comparative Muslim Societies and Cultures

Associate Professor/Assistant Professor

The Department of History, in conjunction with the Centre for the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies and Cultures (CCSMSC) at Simon Fraser University, seeks to make an appointment at the rank of associate professor (with tenure for qualifying candidates) in the field of comparative Muslim societies and cultures. Exceptional candidates at the rank of assistant professor (without tenure) may also be considered.  The recommended candidate will serve as director of the CCSMSC for a 5-year term.  The teaching load for the Director will be 3 courses per year over 2 teaching semesters. The director of the CCSMSC will have access to research funding from the Centre.


Strong candidates in all disciplinary fields will be given serious consideration. The geographic area of specialization is open. Knowledge of Arabic and/or Persian or other regional research language(s) is preferred. The successful candidate will have an international reputation with a strong publication record and extensive teaching experience, preferably at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Simon Fraser University is committed to employment equity and encourages applications from all qualified women and men, including visible minorities, aboriginal people, and persons with disabilities. All qualified candidates are encouraged to apply; however, Canadian citizens and permanent residents will be given priority. Under the authority of the University Act, personal information that is required by the University for academic appointment competitions will be collected. For further details see the Collection Notice. This position is subject to final approval by SFU’s Board of Governors.


Applications must be submitted electronically in PDF format to and include a cover letter describing research and teaching experience, a curriculum vitae, evidence of teaching effectiveness, and a sample publication. Applicants should arrange to have three reference letters sent independently.

The review of applications will begin on January 15, 2016, and will continue until the position is filled. To ensure full consideration, applications should be submitted by this date.  The Centre for the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies and Cultures was established at Simon Fraser University in 2006 to encourage the academic discussion and public understanding of the cultures and societies of Muslim peoples in the past and the present. The community of scholars addressing Muslim societies and cultures at SFU currently numbers over 20 regular faculty in departments across the university, together with a complement of visiting scholars and research associates. Please visit the CCSMSC online at for details.




W3-Professorship in Oriental Studies (Arabic and Islamic Studies)

The Oriental and Islamic Studies Institute at the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, announces a vacancy for a W3 Professorship of Oriental Studies (Arabic and Islamic Studies). The appointment begins April 1, 2016.


The successful candidate will be expected to have research and teaching expertise in the discipline of Oriental Studies, especially the fields of Arabic and Islamic Studies and mainly for the early modern and modern periods. The expected focus of research and teaching activities is the early modern and modern developments of the culture, history, and religion of the Arab and Islamic worlds, combined with experience in working with sociological and anthropological approaches to these fields. Several years of study and research experience in Arab countries and/or other countries of the Islamic world, as well as a second regional field of specialization, are equally desirable. Candidates should be familiar with German to the extent that they are be able to teach in that language within a year’s time.

Nr of positions available : 1


Research Fields

Cultural studies - Oriental studies


Career Stage

More Experienced researcher or >10 yrs (Senior) 


Research Profiles

Leading Researcher (R4) 


Comment/web site for additional job details

Positively assessed junior professorships, post-doc lecturing and research qualifications (in the form of a Habilitation) or equivalent academic achievements and evidence of special aptitude are just as much required as the candidate’s willingness to take part in the university’s academic self-administration.

Additional requirements include:
- a high level of commitment in teaching
- readiness to participate in interdisciplinary academic work
- willingness and ability to attract third-party funding

Ruhr-Universität Bochum is an equal opportunity employer. 
Complete applications with CV, list of publications, of courses taught and of projects funded should be sent to the Dekan der Fakultät für Philologie der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, no later than 2. January 2016.




IMER publications 2015:

Bendixsen, Synnøve Kristine Nepstad; Jacobsen, Christine M.; Søvig, Karl Harald. 2015. Eksepsjonell velferd? Irregulære migranter i det norske velferdssamfunnet. Gyldendal Juridisk. 280 pages. ISBN: 9788205484252.


Jacobsen, Christine "Communicating Irregular Migration". American Behavioral Scientist February 27, 2015 0002764215573260


"The Power of (Re)attachment in Urban Strategy: Interrogating the Framing of Social Sustainability in Malmö". Environment and Planning A 47(1) 2015: 108-120.


"The Instrumentalization of Urban Sexual Diversity in a Civilizational Frame of Tolerance and Cosmopolitanism". In Dhawan, N., A. Engel, C. Holzhey and V. Woltersdorff (eds): Global Justice and Desire: Queering Economy. London & NY: Routledge, 2015: 99-114.            


Bygnes, S (2015) Are They Leaving Because of the Crisis? The Sociological Significance of Anomie as a Motivation for Migration.

Published online before print June 29, 2015, doi: 10.1177/0038038515589300 in Sociology


Bygnes, S. (2015) Migrants of disillusion: European South-North Mobility in the wake of the crisis.//Mistillitens migrasjon: Europeisk sør-nord mobilitet i kjølvannet av krisa. Sosiologisk Tidsskrift nr 3 2015


Other publications

Colleagues may be interested in this free to download e-book, recently published by Russell Sage and edited by Nancy Foner and Patrick Simon:

Fear, Anxiety, and National Identity: Immigration and Belonging in North America and Western Europe


New publication:

Sociology of Islam: Volume 3 (2015) Issue 1-2 


EDITORS: Tugrul Keskin and Gary Wood


Sectarian Affiliation and Gender Traditionalism: A Study of Sunni and Shi’a Muslims in Four Predominantly Muslim Countries    

Authors: Gabriel A. Acevedo and Sarah Shah 


This paper will add to the expanding scholarship in the sociology of Islam and explore the influence of Sunni-Shi’a affiliation on views of gender traditionalism. Using a subset of the World Values Survey, we contrast views towards women’s roles in society held by Sunni and Shi’a respondents in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Pakistan (n = 10,799). Our findings suggest that views of gender traditionalism are not solely a function of sectarian affiliation but that educational attainment, income, demographic factors and national culture are stronger and more consistent predictors of gender traditionalism than sectarian affiliation alone. We draw from theories of religious incongruence and discuss the theoretical implications of our findings. These findings suggest the need for additional research that links sociological theories of religion to the empirical study of Islam, as well as a greater emphasis on the role that social context plays in shaping Muslim public opinion.  

Affiliations: 1: Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Texas at San Antonio, ; 2: Doctoral Student, University of Toronto, 


Al-Qaida in Iraq Beyond Rhetoric: Visualizing an ‘Islamic State of Iraq’  

Author: Christoph Guenther


In any contest for power, the multiple actors involved employ various strategies to convey their messages to national and international audiences. The contest for control over the state between the Iraqi government forces and Jihadist groups after 2003 has seen the latter deploy both rhetoric and particular forms of visualization to persuade their audience of the need to establish an ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and beyond. This article evaluates the extent to which al-Qāʿida in Iraq ( aqi) and its successor the ‘Islamic State of Iraq’ ( isi) have tried to appeal to supporters by employing specific rhetorical and visual signs. It analyzes the group’s utopian prospects – a vision that is reinforced through rhetoric and images that play on emotions and inspire the adherents of the ‘Islamic State’.  

Affiliations: 1: University of Leipzig Leipzig, GermanyRitterstr. 12, 04109 Leipzig (Germany) 


The 1961 Constitutional Referendum in Turkey  

Authors: Yunus Emre and Burak Cop 


The 1961 referendum on the new constitution was the first referendum held in the history of the Turkish republic. However, no deeper analysis of this phenomenon has been conducted in the English-language academic literature. This paper undertakes that objective. The new constitution was drafted and adopted under anti-democratic conditions. The post-coup era was a missed opportunity for instituting a stronger democracy. The referendum was the last nationwide vote in which traditional actors played significant roles in determining voting behavior. The notables and major landowners of the under-developed provinces led the masses to vote in favor of the new constitution. Starting in 1965, politics in Turkey became ideology-centered and class-oriented, thus causing the influence of traditional actors to diminish. Although the campaign for votes to support the referendum dominated the political scene in 1961, the electorate showed its distance from the coup anyway.  

Affiliations: 1: Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Istanbul Kültür University,; 2: Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Istanbul Kültür University, 


Globalization, Political Islam, and Moderation: The Case of Muslim Democratic Parties       

Author: A. Kadir Yildirim


In this article, I examine the rising significance of a moderate kind of Islamist party emerging in the Middle East in recent years—Muslim democratic parties—and, the factors underlying their electoral success. In this, the manuscript takes a closer look at an important constituency of Islamist parties, the small and medium business owners ( smes). Briefly, I argue that smes’ support underlies the success of moderate Muslim democratic parties as opposed to more conservative Islamist parties, and what determines smes’ support for a moderate party is the change in their political preferences. The change in smepreferences, I show, is due to the form that economic liberalization takes, whether economic liberalization is more inclusive (what I call competitive liberalization) or exclusive/selective (what I call crony liberalization). Empirically, I rely on original field interviews I conducted with party officials and business owners in Egypt, Morocco, and Turkey. I also integrate primary sources such as party publications into the analysis.  

Affiliations: 1: Baker Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, 



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